Socio-political

   The Constitution

The constitution of Jordan was promulgated in 1952. Since 1989, a new phase appeared: the martial law was abolished in 1991 and the legislation of political parties enacted in 1992. The moderate opposition incarnated by the Islamic Action Front counts some 27 political parties.

The electoral system arranges a specific place for the religious and ethnic minorities: Christians, Bedouins, Circassians and Chechens, who have seats in the Chamber of Deputies.

The Christians' place symbolizes a successful integration. Their role in the Jordanian society including the governmental authorities is not a subject of discrimination. 

   The Institutional Structure

The Jordanian institutional organization was established on the 1st of January 1952. It sets up the separation between the authorities including the legal system and institutes a bicameral parliamentary system. It is a constitutional monarchy. The constitution proclaims in the preamble the nature of the hereditary and parliamentary monarchy.

The Jordanian people are a part of the Arab nation. Islam is the religion of the State and Arabic is the official language of the Kingdom. The constitution enumerates and guarantees the public and individual liberties. It notably bans any discrimination on the basis of race, language and religion. The freedom of opinion and its expression - notably the freedom of the press - is guaranteed.

    The Executive Power

The King, Chief of the State, exercises it. He ratifies and promulgates the laws. He summons the National Assembly, and can adjourn or defer it. He nominates and dismisses the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government collectively and individually.

The Prime Minister and the members of Government are responsible before the Chamber of Deputies. It can cast a vote of no-trust towards the government only by the absolute majority of its members.

   The Legislative Power

The National Assembly, composed of two chambers, exercises it: a Chamber of Deputies, elected for four years by direct universal suffrage and a Senate whose members are nominated by the King.

If one or the other of the assemblies contests a project of a law, it may be adopted only if the two assemblies meet to adopt it by a majority of two-thirds of their members. The King may exercise a temporary right of veto for six months that may be lifted only by a vote of two-thirds of the members of both assemblies.

 

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